Japan Journal of Sport Sociology Vol.6(1998)
The Olympics in Lillehammer
The Adjustment of a Mega-Event to a Local Culture. or:
from Technocratic Fathering, via Anomic Pregnancy, to Popular Enjoyment.
Both theoretical and empirical sociological works tell as that rapid social change
in a local society might produce conflicts and problems. This paper tells the story
about what happened to the community of Lillehammer (23,000 inhabitants) during the
construction period and during the 16 olympics days. How did the local popuration
react to the prospects of huge investments during a short time span? The paper lists
four criteria for the integrated society, and asks if the community of Lillehammer
experienced processes of distintegration during the construction period. To a certain
degree, the construction period can be described as an anomic pregnancy; there was
a feeling of community lost in the town. During the olympic arrangement, however,
this situation changed dramatically. While the years before the Games could be described
in terms of fission, the 16 olympic days turned out as an enormous fusion process.
The local integrational effects of the Games is explained in terms of collective identity
processes. The theoretical framework for much of the discussion is phenomenological:
Based on stories written by the local population of Lillehammer, the author asks: How
do people construct the new social reality which took place outside their windows?
Keywords : Olympic games, community integration, collective Identity
Networking in the River Basin by Canoe Clubs and its Possibility
For Forming the Arena for New Way of River Improvement
People living in urban area is starting to notice importance of forest in upriver
district concerning to the water resource and outdoor recreation. And networking
on various levels between urban area and rural area in a river basin is demanded
to reactivate communities in mountain region. The Teshio river in the northern part
of Hokkaido keeps better condition of natural environment, because the river improvement
work has been delayed there. The natural environment has a possibility to develop
the nature based tourism by giving fields of canoeing for urban people. Networking
of local governments in the basin was needed to realize it. But it had not been formed
until the 1980s. Canoe clubs established by local resident in each municipality have
started to form a grass roots network from the beginning of the 1990s. This network has
formed a broader network that covered levels from grass roots to government by connecting
with environmental groups, Hokkaido Development Board and Department of civil engineering
construction that are managing river improvement and local governments. And it is initiating
a project in the unit of the basin to reactivate communities. This paper will show the
status and problems of the broader network in the basin by focusing on the relationship
with the canoe clubs network.
Keyword : network of canoe clubs, network in the river basin, new way of river improvement
Modern Sport and Anti - Modernism
Many studies clarify that the modern Sport has modernism as main constituent element.
The concern of this study is the contrary aspect of modern sport, anti-modernism.
Modernism is defined as the phenomena that is caused by misunderstanding that the
subject can control the world entirely by using his reason. Anti-modernism is defined
as the mystic experience that activities in the world give the subject a new subjectivity
all of a sudden. A hypothesis of this study is that modern sport has anti-modernism
as a constituent elements, and has a effect to give the heeling of body to the modern subject.
Main results are as follows;
1) Inter-bodily performance is realized at the extreme situation in the significant game
for sports players.Their self-consciousness and the intentional control of body of
players are disappeared in the inter-bodily performance.
2) It is an essential for realizing inter-bodily performance to have a rhythm jointly
in their sport training.
3) Inter-bodily performance has a effect to give the players body heeling. Sports players
get a new subjectivity in inter-bodily performance.
4) An aspect of anti-modernism in moderm sport has an effect to heel the moderm subject,
but has an another effect to form the local universe exclusively.
Keywords : centripetal-centrifugal operation of intentionality, inter-bodily performance, body healing, rhythm
The Body in "Sports Experience"
The Possibility of Positive Study about Running
This paper tried to do positive study about running which is one of the case as
"sports experience" by comparing the research on six runners using interview with
Harada's positive paper "Phenomenology of Marathon". The analysis was done with
giving attention to "existential body" and "social body" especially.
This paper revealed that :
1) It is more important that runners with "existential body" araised by stripping
social meaning find out self than that they associate with the another runners. and
runners reconstruct own self-identity and real world in conformity to the self.
2) Runners don't form the running ideology within peculiar scene of "Marathon" but
re-interprete the meaning of experience on marathon and form the running ideology
within usuall running scene. So we must give attenntion to usuall running scene as
forming the running ideologiy.
3) The process that runners reconstruct their self-identity and real world is influenced
by social meaning. Then runners use peculiar tactics to elude the social oppression
using new frame-work to interpret society, which is obbtained after the clash between
"existential body" and "social body".
As a rusult we can discover the interaction between "existential body" and "social bodey"
in the process of comprehending "sports experience".
Keywords : "sports experience", existential body, social body
The Form of Norm in Sports and Gender
In studies of the relation between sports and gender the concept of gender
has not been used in the sense of "order owing to gender". The purpose of
this paper is to consider of the relation between establishment of order in
sports and gender.
We shall consider the subject from historical sociological point of view and
note sociality in body.
We can see from this viewpoint about the relation between abstracting process
of everyday norm and gender, charactristic norm in sports and gender, capitalism
in progress and gender.
Keywords : sports, gender, body, norm
A Study on Socialization into Sport of an Athlete with Physical Disability
From a Life History of a Wheelchair Basketball Player
There are a few researches focus on influences of the macro level factors of
socialization into sport. We can also find a few papers mention detail personal
attributes of socializee in the field of socialization into sport.
The purpose of this paper is to understand a process of socialization into sport
of an athlete with physical disability. The socialization process takes place in
social interaction between social agents and the socializee. To achieve the purpose,
the life history method was adopted in this paper.
To get the information, the author had a non-directive interview with a female athlete
with physical disability who plays wheelchair basketball. The author also interviewed
some people concerned with her and analyzed some documents to follow her life history.
The results found in this paper are as follows :
1. The socializee had social interaction with some different important social agents
at the same period.
2. The socializee is an individual who could made herself socialized into sport,
and was able to influence others.
3. To this athlete with spina bifida from her birth, good rehabilitation done in
her childhood is very important for socialization into sport in her later life.
4. Integrated play, integrated physical activities, integrated sport and integrated
physical education may provide good influences to the sport socialization of
children with disability.
5. The process of the socialization into sport concerns itself with the social agents,
social contexts, institutions, and culture.
Keywords : people with physical disabilities, life history, socialization,
integration, wheelchair basketball
Processes of Change in Professional Bicycle Racing (Keirin)
The Relationship Between Sports and Gambling
In the case of sports, gambling influences the character of any game. The purpose
of this paper is to discuss the history of keirin in Japanese postwar society,
and, further, to consider the relationship between sports and the gambling.
Keirin is the term for professional bicycle racing in Japan, a sport that began
in 1948. It is one of the publicly-managed gambling sports called kouei-kyougi.
Among professionalsports in Japan, keirin has had the largest number of professionals.
Moreover, there are 50 keirin racetracks spread throughout Japan. The IOC has
even decided to adopt the sport as a new event in the Olympic Games to be held
at Sydney, Australia.
Yet, despite its successes, keirin usually has not been treated as a sport in Japan.
Keirin has had a poor reputation due to the many problems associated with it in
its early years. In various ways, the managing organization of keirin has been
taking measures to sweep away those bad images.
They have made efforts to rationalize the system of management and refereeing
as well as the administrative system that governs pro-racers. Keirin has grown
relatively unpopular since the 1970s. In response, the management organization
has subdivided the pro-racer ranking class into smaller parts in order to complicate
prospects for the outcome of the game.
All of these efforts have sought to better the game, to legitimate keirin as a
Keirin has thus been transformed, serving as an example of the process of the
modernization of sports. In this paper, I argue, in sum, that concerns over gambling
brought about the modernization of keirin as a sport.
Keywords : kouei-kyougi, keirin, gambling, modernization of sports
Sports in the Segregated Society
Reflection or Contribution to the Cultural Separateness
"Troubles" in Northern Ireland is deep rooted and its stubborn linkage with
two deferent cultures backed by the different faith does not allow the politicians
to reach the breakthrough without any problems.
Sports played in such a divided society in a way or another have reflected or
contributed to the conditions where the each side of people has the difficulties
in understanding the different way of living.
Three different kinds of sports are selected to illustrate the cultural separateness
in Ireland. Namely GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association), rugby football (union) and
soccer, which are supposed to be major sports in Ireland, are deeply integrated
into the unique Irish cultural history and environment.
GAA is widely believed to work as a nationalistic symbol and actually has been
a part of power bloc in the country. Irish Rugby Football Union has managed
to produce one united national team regardless of southern or northern.
However the united Ireland is nothing but a myth in reality. Soccer has two
different representative teams and organization, so in a way reflected the reality well.
It is discussed that the educational system have played a key role in the reproduction
of the cultural division in this society.
Keywords : segregated society, sectarianism, symbolism
SAGE, George H.
Power and Ideology in American Sport
A Critical Perspective
The American society and sport were discussed from critical perspective,
actually hegemonic theory, in this book. The main contention is that sport
is woven into the major social institutions such as politics, ecnomics,
education, culture, mass media, and the issues on sport and these institutions
become clear by analizing from critical perspective, then, change in sport can occur.
The author, introduced a sociological perspective of sport at first, then,
by using the concept of hegemony, described about sport and class, gender,
racial stratification, sport and the states, commercialization of sport,
mass media and sport, the professional team sport industry, the intercollegiate
sport, bulding character through sport, and transformation in sport. In the final
chapter, he summarized these issues and advocated the egalitarian sport system.
This book was written as an introduction to the sociology of sport. Through this book,
we can learn about the sociological perspective of sport and get more knowledges
concerning American sport. Moreover, by comparing that with Japanese society,
culture and sport, we can also find the differences between Japan and the United States.
The most of the contents of this book were also discussed in the author’s another book,
"Sociology of North American Sport", sixth edition, 1996. This book was not written
from the special theory, however, it is useful for us to learn sociology of sport
and American sport, too. English version published 1990 Human Kinetics (Champaign, Il.);
Japanese translation 1997 Fumai-do (Tokyo).
Keywords : American sport, sociological perspective, hegemony, ideology, social institution
MATSUDA, K., et. al.(ed.)
Sport, Culture and Education
A Consideration on the Intrinsic Value of Sport to Man
An anthology with warm hearted insight into the significance and values
attached toward sports and education of sports in the prese nt day Japan,
written by several scholars on the topic including editors: K. Matsuda,
M. Matsuda, J. Shimazaki and N. Tsubota.
Part 1 of the anthology deals with defining sport, as well as values and
meaning people feel while doing, watching or contemplating it.
Part 2, being varied in aspects, deals with the relationship between sport
and the social change Japanese society has undergone during, mostly,
the post-war period. Those aspects include, among others, urbanization,
development of high-tech media and the influence from Japan's international relations.
Part 3 focuses on the history and the reality of sport education. This part
also includes variety of aspects: from sport in school education to life-long
education among local communities.
Generally speaking, writers themselves share a sort of idealistic, utopian or
romantic feeling toward the sport culture itself; which makes me rather suppose
if they are thus aiming to lead the readers toward some deeper understandings of
the non-idealistic, non-utopian nor romantic shades sport is necessarily forced
to bear within the circumstances of present day Japan.
Thus supposing, I have come to the conclusion that the writers are perhaps taking
very precautious strategy in dealing with their core issues: what might be the
intrinsic value sport has to people and their lives.
Published 1997 Gakujutsu-tosho-shuppan (Tokyo).
Keywords: play, sport culture, education of sport, physical education
SUGIMOTO, Atsuo (ed.)
The Sociology of Sport Fan
Considering the fact that most of the writers in this anthology over-wrap
those in the previously issued "Sociology of High-school Baseball in Japan"(1994),
they are certainly very productive writers within the field at issue; and,
as the sociological study of sport fan has just begun at least in Japan,
this has to be said safely as another valuable contribution in this field.
Articles in it could be classified into three categories: theory-oriented,
middle ranged and essays.
As for the first, theory-oriented works, foci are mainly confined on the
spectator sports: those watched as against those played.
The writers try to explain theoretically what do the enthusiasm, fad or violence
experienced during the sport events. They either refer to "agitato"-"sedativo"
alternation during a ritual, psycho-religious experience of fusion in the sacred
or suppression of human violent element in the process of civilization, etc..
The second category: middle-ranged theorizing comprises articles on coinage of
sport fan in Japan, transition of sport heroes from national star to international
icon and mobilization of gender image in sport, etc..
The third category includes articles composed by sport journalists rather than scholars,
which are from their very nature illuminating.
Although recognizing the importance of the works in here very highly, I feel I have
to be frank in saying that confining "sport fan" to those spectators of sport could
have done a little depreciation to this anthology's persuasiveness to us.
Published 1997 Sekai-shiso-sha (Kyoto).
Keywords: sport fan, theory of sport
Imagination of Body Culture
Knowledge of the Body in Denmark
The aim of this book is to present a new perspective of body culture.
The book consists of seven chapters which are respectively equivalent
to Henning Eichberg’s seven articles selected and translated into Japanese
by Satoshi Shimizu.
The method which Eichberg adopts consistently through all the chapters is
trialectical thinking of body culture. He presents popular body movements
as the third one in order to get over the traditional dualism of sports:
"achievement sport" vs. "fitness sport." This trialectical approach opens
a way to critical analysis of modern sports. Eichberg demonstrates "trialectis
of body culture" philosophically by reinterpreting Martin Buber's "dialogical
principle." Though it is understandable that popular dimension of body culture
is connected with "I-thou" relation in Buber's theory, deducing the triangle:
it-body, I-body, and thou-body, as transgression of the body dualism from
Buber's theory is an illogical jump.
Eichberg declares that the festivity of popular body culture is different from
the festivity of spectator sports. His suggestion provides us a critical viewpoint
of spectator sports. It also means that Eichberg's trialectical thinking of body
culture is born of Danish history of dialogical democracy in popular movements
with decentralizing tradition of Folk Academies, grassroots orientation and
cultural criticism. In Denmark popular physical movement corresponded to political movement.
Published 1997 Shin-hyoron (Tokyo).
Keywords : body culture, popular, trialectical thinking, festivity, identity