Japan Journal of Sport Sociology Vol.7(1999) Abstract

The Professional Baseball in Japan Its Foreseeable Future KANEMITSU, Chihiro Abstract The Japanese professional baseball business is now experiencing a critical situation. This could be seen in the symptoms below. 1) Changes in the market structure--Japanese young people do not attend or watch baseball games much any more. 2) The lack of the "regional belongingness"-- partly due to the early destruction of the rural communities, and partly due to the rapid population mobility, it has become hard to establish any franchise team system. 3) The Japanese mass media pay broadcast royalty to just one baseball team--the Yomiuri Giants, as against to the baseball leagues. 4) And the outflux of eminent players to the MLB. Should any drastic measures not be taken, the professional baseball in Japan would suffer considerable downsizing. Keywords: Social background of Japanese professional baseball, Japanese professional baseball as an enterprise, Future prospect of the Japanese baseball Sport Industry and Korean Economy Trends and Prospects PARK, Jin Kyung Abstract The development of Korean sport gained from the efforts during last three decades now, however, faces a serious crisis by so-called'IMF Economic Crisis'which caused a disastrous impact into the nation since the end of last year. The most conspicuous structural change in sport since IMF crisis is summarized with downsizing the function of sport policy and its government organizations, the dismissal of sport teams owned by business firms, and qualitative changes of consumption structure in sport. Sport industry covers manufacturing and tertiary sector providing products and services that relates to sporting activities. According to official statistics available at the present time, the market size strictly related to sport equipment and services in 1996 reached 2,700 billion Korean Won which consists of 1,200 billion Won (44.5%) in sport equipment and 1,500 billion Won (55.5%) in sport services. To overcome current IMF economic crisis and regain the previous position in world economy, there should be an attempt to contribute to national economy through survival and development of sport industry. And this has to proceed in accordance with economic and structual reform occurring in entire society, and has to be backed up by rational and organized programs. It is also expected that, once Korea regains its stable economic growth, the sport and leisure boom will soon follow. To effectively and actively prepare for the possible changes of socioeconomic environment, sport has to be recognized as one area of national industry. There are several areas where efforts are needed to ultimately lead sport industry into the one of high value-added production and the leading one contributing to the national economy upon the basis of enormous overseas and domestic demands. Keywords : sport industry, Korean economy, IMF Sportization and Globalization A Process-sociological Perspective MAGUIRE, Joseph Abstract This paper analizes the global sport processes from Process Sociological Perspective. Sociologists must seek to explain how the present pattern of global sport has emerged out of the past and is connected with arrange of civilizational struggles. The concept Globalization refers to the growing network of interdependencies, political, economic, cultural and social, that bind human beings together. It is important to mention where the modern sport comes from and when it first emerged. In making sense of early phases of global sport processes four keypoints need to be grasped: (1) very long term structured processes were involved; (2)there was a varying balance of centripetal and centrifugal forces involved in the developing chains of interdependence; (3) there is a need to examine the changing balance of power between different groups and institutions; (4) there is a need to avoid both natio-centrism and Euro-centrism and view the emergent European sport structures in the context of wider, and increasingly global network of inter-dependencies. The global sport processes may be divided into 5 phases, and the three most recentphases are characterized as follows. The third sportization phase, late 19th and early 20th century, is characterized that international orgnizations and sport rules were established, and international mega events unfold. In the forthphase, from the 1920s to the late 1960s, sport culture with the strong notion of Western core diffused to non-Western world, while the resistance of non-Western culture towards the West was observed. This phase of global sportization also witnessed the slow decline of modern sport's founding nation. The fifth global sportization phase, beginning in the late 1960's, witnessed that the media sport procuction complex markets'sameness'-especially in the form of American sports- and the global political economy that regulates global flows ensure that the 'local' does not freely choose which cultural products are consumed. On the other hand, this phase's sportization involves the creolization of sport cultures, and the control of international sport organizations and the Olympic movement is beginning to slip out of the exclusive hands of the West. Keywords: Globalization, Sportization, Media Sport Production Complex, creolization A Study on Elder Peoples"Raison de Vivre"and"Natural Play" Cases of Hiking/Wandervogel Participants KUSAKA, Yukoh Abstract This study considered the relationship between the "raison de vivre"and the "natural play"(hiking/Wandervogel) of elder people, refferring to the concepts of Soushi's "shoyo-yu"(the way of the peripatetic life of Taoizum), Elikson's "wisdom"and Kamiya's "raison de vivre"?using the verious method of questionaires, participation observations, interviews, note/poems and videos .As a result, the following points were clarified. 1) Participants to hiking/Wandervogel have active life style and strong nature oriented leisure style compering with the general elder people. 2)There are at least three value consciousness in the "raison de vivre "of these people. Those are the health promotion by"expasion of living mind and body", the enlargement of his/her world by "involvement" in nature and other participants and the finding of new his/her own theme (the travel to self-identity) by the impression in bodily sansation with nature. 3)Hiking/Wandervogel as a natural play have significant possibility to link with the "raison de vivre" feeling of elder people. Keywords : raison de vivre of elder people, natural play, health promotion, fun, friend/involvement. self-identity Secret Messages from Operationalized Naturalization of Top Athletes in Japan CHIBA, Naoki EBIHARA, Osamu Abstract The Post-Cold War gives rise to gaining power of racism as a new paradigm. As this actualized ethnicity has been subconscious in the world formerly, there is also no exception in sporting world. We have to be strongly aware of"borderless athletes"who transgress socially producted boundary of nation or ethnicity. While they seem to be same circumstances, they transmit different or common messages. The purpose of this study is to analyze their sending "secret messages", by classifying "borderless athletes" based on motives to migrate and naturalize. There are connections of grobal or Japanese socially phenomenons which relate respectively supremely commercialism, grobalization, assimilation. Keywords : operationalized naturalization, borderless athletes, secret messages, Japanization The Leadership Functions and Morale at Intercollegiate Athletic Team Advice from PM Leadership Theory NOGAMI, Makoto Abstract Argued is the effectiveness of three leadership functions (the Pressure, the Planning and the Maintenance) on subordinate morale at intercollegiate athletic team. Samples are 341 members of athletic clubs at Okayama University. For analysis on relationships between leadership functions and subordinate morale (eagerness about club activity, satisfaction with training and meeting), partial correlation is used. The results are as follows. 1. When dependent variable is eagerness about club activity, the Pressure tends to be more effective in the case of high Maintenance than in low Maintenance. In addition, the previous tendency is more clearly found when the Planning is low. 2. When dependent variable is eagerness about club activity, the Maintenance tends to be more effective in the case of high Pressure than in low Pressure. In addition, the previous tendency is more clearly found when the Planning is low. Keywords : the Pressure, the Planning, the Maintenance, morale